Hedging is a kind of language use which ‘protects’ your claims.

Using language with a amount that is suitable of can protect your claims from being easily dismissed. It also helps to point the known level of certainty we have in relation to the evidence or support.

Compare the next two texts that are short (A) and (B). You will notice that even though the two texts are, in essence, saying the same thing, (B) has a substantial number of extra language round the claim. A large level of this language is performing the function of ‘hedging’.

Compare the following two short texts, (A) and (B). Just how many differences would you see in the second text? What’s the function/effect/purpose of each and every difference?

You shall probably realize that (B) is more ‘academic’, however it is important to comprehend why.

(A) Extensive reading helps students to enhance their vocabulary.

(B) Research conducted by Yen (2005) generally seems to indicate that, for an important proportion of students, extensive reading may contribute to a noticable difference inside their active vocabulary. Yen’s (2005) study learners that are involved 15-16 when you look at the UK, even though it might be applicable with other groups. However, the study involved an sample that is opt-in which means that the sample students may have been more ‘keen’, or more involved in reading already. It could be useful to see whether or not the findings differ in a wider sample.

(take note that Yen (2005) is a reference that is fictional only for example).

The table below provides some examples of language to use when knowledge that is making.

Try to look for samples of hedging language in your reading that is own add to this table.

Phrases for Hedging

Language Function with Example Phrases

1) Quantifiers

a fraction
a minority/majority of
a proportion of
to some degree

2) Appearance

appears to
has the looks of
is similar to
shares characteristics with
appears to be in line with

3) Possibility

has the possibility of
has the potential to
is able to

4) Frequency

tends to
has a tendency to

5) Comparatively

in a less complicated way than .
more simply than …
When compared to …

Within the context of …
…in certain situations…
Within some households…

7) Ev >Based on …
As indicated by …
According to …

8) Description in language

can be described as
could be thought to be
is sometimes labelled
can be equated to
the term is oftentimes used to mean
the term is oftentimes used to mention to
this may indicate that …
this may claim that …

Language categories compiled and devised by Jane Blackwell

IOE Writing Centre Online

Self-access resources through the Academic Writing Centre during the UCL Institute of Education.

Still need help? Ask and answer questions on academic writing on our Moodle forum:
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Academic Centre that is writing Institute of Education

Essays often sound tough, however they are the easiest way to write an extended answer.
In this lesson, we shall have a look at just how to write one.


Start your answer, and list what you should about be writing

Come up with the basic ideas which will answr fully your question


Re-write what your ideas are and say why they have been answered by you

Arguments, Keywords and Definitions

Before we start going right on through how an essay works, we have to proceed through three terms that people will used to describe what you do for essay writing structure.
Argument = all the points that are main are planning to talk about in your essay.
Keywords = words that are important components of the question
Definition = A one-sentence summary of your essay that is whole which write in your introduction.
We shall go through some situations in an instant.

Basic Introduction

To write your introduction, follow these steps. Each one of these steps means you start a new sentence.

  • Rewrite the question using keywords, include the name of text(s) and author(s)
  • Write a one sentence answer (definition)
  • List every one of the main points of one’s argument

Exemplory case of an Introduction

Are pigs in a position to fly? (Question)
Pigs aren’t able to fly. (Re-write of question)
They cannot fly because their bodies do not allow them to. (Definition)
These are generally too heavy to float, they do not have wings or propellers, in addition they cannot control aircraft. (Main Points)

The body forms most of one’s essay.
It’s the most important part of each essay you write.
Within your body, you must argue all of your main points and explain why they answr fully your question.
Each main point should always be in a new paragraph.

Each main point should be in a paragraph that is different. Each paragraph ought to be lay out similar to this:

  • Topic Sentence: a short sentence where you repeat one main point from your introduction.
  • Discussion: Explain why your main point is right and provide reasoned explanations why.
  • Evidence: Proof that you will get from a text, a quote, or a ‘fact’. It should prove that your particular answer is right.
  • Lead out: Finish the point that is main you can easily go right to the next.

Illustration of a physical body Paragraph

Pigs are too heavy to float. (Topic Sentence)
Their large bodies and weight mean that they are not able to float, which will be one of the ways a creature can fly. To float a pig would have to be lighter than air. (discussion)
A pig weighs 200 kilograms, and due to this weight, it’s not lighter than air. (Evidence)
As a result, a pig is not able to float and cannot fly. (Lead out)

Conclusion of Essay Writing Structure

A conclusion is a short summary of everything you’ve got written in your system paragraph.
It should ‘tie’ everything together.

As pigs are not able to best custom writing companies float, they do have wings and cannot control aircraft, they unable to get into the air, and fly that is therefore cannot.

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