The four main kinds of academic writing are descriptive, analytical, critical and persuasive.

In lots of academic texts you will need to use more than one type. As an example, in an thesis that is empirical

  • you will definitely use critical writing within the literature review to demonstrate where there is a gap or opportunity in the existing research
  • The methods section shall be mostly descriptive to summarise the methods used to gather and analyse information
  • the outcomes section should be mostly descriptive and analytical while you report regarding the data you collected
  • the discussion section is much more analytical, while you propose your interpretations of the findings as you relate your findings back to your research questions, and also persuasive.


The simplest type of academic writing is descriptive. Its purpose is to provide facts or information. An example would be a summary of an article or a study associated with the total link between an experiment.

The sorts of instructions for a purely descriptive assignment include: identify, report, record, summarise and define.


It’s rare for a text that is university-level be purely descriptive. Most academic writing is also analytical. Analytical writing includes descriptive writing, but you also re-organise the facts and information you describe into categories, groups, parts, types or relationships.

Sometimes, these categories or relationships are actually area of the discipline, sometimes you may create them specifically for your text. For instance, if you’re comparing two theories, you may break your comparison into several parts, as an example: how each theory relates to social context, how each theory deals with language learning, and just how each theory can be utilized in practice.

The sorts of instructions for an assignment that is analytical: analyse, compare, contrast, relate, examine.

To help make your writing more analytical:

  • spend sufficient time planning. Brainstorm the known facts and ideas, and try other ways of grouping them, according to patterns, parts, similarities and differences. You could utilize colour-coding, flow charts, tree diagrams or tables.
  • create a name when it comes to relationships and categories you see. As an example, advantages and disadvantages.
  • build each section and paragraph around among the analytical categories.
  • make the structure of your paper clear to your reader, through the use of topic sentences and a introduction that is clear.
  • In many academic writing, you need to go at least one step further than analytical writing, to persuasive writing. Persuasive writing has all the features of analytical writing (this is certainly, information plus re-organising the knowledge), with the addition of your own point of view. Most essays are persuasive, and there’s a persuasive element in at least the discussion and conclusion of a study article.

    Points of view in academic writing range from a disagreement, a recommendation, interpretation of findings or evaluation of the ongoing work of others. Each claim you make needs to be supported by some evidence, for example a reference to research findings or published sources in persuasive writing.

    The kinds of instructions for a persuasive assignment include: argue, evaluate, discuss, take a posture.

    To greatly help achieve your own point of view in the facts or ideas:

    • read several other researchers’ points of look at the subject. Who do you feel is the most convincing?
    • try to find patterns within the data or references. Where is the evidence strongest?
    • list several different interpretations. Which are the real-life implications of every one? Those that will tend to be most useful or beneficial? Those that possess some problems?
    • Discuss the known facts and ideas with some other person. Do you agree with their point of view?

    To build up your argument:

    • list the reasons that are different your point of view
    • consider the many types and types of evidence that can be used to support your point of view
    • Consider ways that are different your point of view is comparable to, and various from, the points of view of other researchers
    • try to find different ways to split your point of view into parts. As an example, cost effectiveness, environmental sustainability, scope of real-world application.

    To present your argument, be sure:

    • your text develops a argument that is coherent all the individual claims work together to guide your general point of view
    • your reasoning for each claim is clear towards the reader
    • your assumptions are valid
    • you’ve got evidence for virtually any claim you make
    • you employ evidence that is convincing and directly relevant.

    Critical writing is common for research, postgraduate and advanced undergraduate writing. It offers all of the features of persuasive writing, because of the added feature of at least one other point of view. While persuasive writing requires you to have your very own point of take on a concern or topic, critical writing requires you to definitely consider at least two points of view, together with your own.

    For instance, you might explain a researcher’s interpretation or argument and then evaluate the merits for the argument, or give your own personal alternative interpretation.

    Types of critical writing assignments include a critique of a journal article, or a literature review that identifies the strengths and weaknesses of existing research. The kinds of instructions for critical writing include: critique, debate, disagree, evaluate.

    • accurately summarise all or area of the work. This could include identifying the interpretations that are main assumptions or methodology.
    • have a viewpoint about the work. Appropriate forms of opinion could include pointing out some problems with it, proposing an alternative approach that would be better, and/or defending the work up against the critiques of others
    • provide evidence for the point of view. With regards to the assignment that is specific the discipline, different sorts of evidence could be appropriate, such as for instance logical reasoning, mention of the authoritative sources and/or research data.

    Critical writing requires writing that is strong. You will need to thoroughly understand the topic together with issues. You will need to develop an essay structure and paragraph structure that enables you to analyse different interpretations and build your argument that is own by evidence.

    Kategorie: Allgemein
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